Hacking Final Fantasy 1 on the NES

A few years ago I was inspired to hack around on some of my old favorite NES games after watching the video from Double Fine where the developer Brandon Dillon hacks around on the original Legend of Zelda. You can watch the video here.

I decided I wanted to hack Final Fantasy 1, one of my favorite games growing up, that I put in more than 100 hours playing. I used fceux as my NES emulator, same as in the video and followed mostly the same patterns.

I kept some notes on how I did it and thought others might find the process as interesting and fun as I did. I ended up losing most of the notes from a few years ago, so I went back and rediscovered the different memory locations and values to use again.

I searched in the RAM Search window for values, particularly as something in-game would change, such as when you buy a weapon or a spell, in order to track down the correct memory locations. Then I would use the Hex Editor tool to look at the NES RAM and try poking different locations.

Note that values that need more than one byte are stored little-endian, so the lower byte shows up first in memory.

Character Data and Stats

The character data is organized into four blocks, once for each character, one after the other starting at 0x6100. I was able to find this by searching for my character’s names in RAM. The trick is finding the value associated with the letters, which you can do by looking at the PPU memory and determining what tile goes to what letter.

PPU Memory

You can see that a capital ‘A’ is mapped to 0x8A. I named my first character ‘AAAA’ so searching through the Hex Editor in FCEUX for the hex “8a8a8a8a” brings us right to the first character’s block of data:

Character Name in Hex Editor

Address Character Data
0x6100 - 0x613f 1st character
0x6140 - 0x617f 2nd character
0x6180 - 0x61bf 3rd character
0x61c0 - 0x61ff 4th character

Some interesting locations within a character block:

Address Attribute
0x0 character type
0x1 character alive state (0: alive, 1:dead)
0x2 - 0x5 character name (using PPU tile indices)
0x7 - 0x9 experience points
0xa - 0xb current hit points
0xc - 0xd max hit points
0x10 - 0x14 Str, Agl, Int, Vit, Luck
0x20 - 0x23 Damage, Hit%, Absorb, Evade %

I found many of the above locations by looking at the Stats section for a character and then looking for the hex converted values within the block. For instance, looking for my first character’s Str and Agl of 20, and 5 was a matter of looking for the hex values 14, 05 and finding them on the second line of the data block. Then I messed with the values and saw what changed.

When you start the game, you characters are child versions of their classes: fighter, black mage, etc. Later in the game, after you get the Rat’s Tail, they become adults: knight, black wizard etc. You can increase the character’s type value by 6 (the total number of character classes), and they will change to their adult version right away.


What magic spells a character has, and the current/max number of spells per level are stored in blocks for each character starting at 0x6300:

Address Character Magic Data
0x6300 - 0x632f 1st character
0x6340 - 0x636f 2nd character
0x6380 - 0x63af 3rd character
0x63c0 - 0x63ef 4th character

The first 32 bytes are what spells the character has for each level. Each level gets 4 bytes, with the first 3 being the spell in that level’s slot, and the 4th byte being 0. White spells for a level are numbered 0-4 and black spells are 5-8.

The last 16 bytes within the block are 2 bytes for each level, with the first byte being the current number of casts left for the level, with the 2nd byte being the max.

Here you can see a white wizard that I’ve given the first 3 spells of each level to (the repeating 01 02 03) and that has 9 / 9 casts for each level:

Character Magic Data in Hex Editor

And the white wizard’s magic table in-game looks like:

Character Magic Table in Game

White Magic Spell table

1 2 3 4
Lvl 1 cure harm fog ruse
Lvl 2 lamp mute alit invs
Lvl 3 cur2 hrm2 afir heal
Lvl 4 pure fear aice amut
Lvl 5 cur3 life hrm3 hel2
Lvl 6 soft exit fog2 inv2
Lvl 7 cur4 hrm4 arub hel3
Lvl 8 lif2 fade wall xfer

Black Magic Spell table

5 6 7 8
Lvl 1 fire slep lcok lit
Lvl 2 ice dark tmpr slow
Lvl 3 fir2 hold lit2 lok2
Lvl 4 slp2 fast conf ice2
Lvl 5 fir3 bane warp slo2
Lvl 6 lit3 rub qake stun
Lvl 7 ice3 brak sabr blnd
Lvl 8 nuke stop zap! xxxx

Weapons and Armor

By buying a rapier and then equipping/unequipping I found the equip memory to be at 0x0300, there are 16 bytes available, matching the 4 slots for each character. Each weapon and armor has a number and to be equipped is a matter of setting the highest bit. For example, if the rapier is 04, then 84 means an equipped rapier.

Interestingly, the memory seems to be used for the equip menu, and is mirrored at 0x0b00, 0x1300, and 0x1b00 as well. This same memory is used when equipping armor, so you can set the values while equipping, and they will stick when you leave the menu.

Weapons List

Hex Code Weapon Hex Code Weapon
00 Nothing 15 Ice Sword
01 Wooden Nunchucks 16 Dragon sword
02 Small dagger 17 Giant sword
03 Wooden staff 18 Sun Sword
04 Rapier 19 Coral sword
05 Iron Hammer 1a Were Sword
06 Short Sword 1b Rune sword
07 Hand Axe 1c Power staff
08 Scimatar 1d Light Axe
09 Iron Nunchucks 1e Heal staff
0a Large Knfie 1f Mage staff
0b Iron Staff 20 Defense ?
0c Sabre 21 Wizard staff
0d Long Sword 22 Vorpal
0e Great Axe 23 CatClaw
0f Falchon 24 Thor Hammer
10 Silver dagger 25 Bane Sword
11 Silver Sword 26 Katana
12 Silver Hammer 27 XCalber
13 Silver Axe 28 Masmune
14 Flame sword

Armor List

Hex Value Armor Hex Value Armor
01 Cloth 15 Ice shield
02 Wooden Armor 16 Opal shield
03 Chain Armor 17 Aegis Shield
04 Iron Armor 18 Buckler
05 Steel Armor 19 ProCape
06 Silver Armor 1a Cap
07 Flame Armor 1b Wooden helmet
08 Ice Armor 1c Iron helmet
09 Opal Armor 1d Silver helmet
0A Dragon Armor 1e Opal helmet
0b Copper ring 1f Heal helmet
0c Silver ring 20 Ribbon
0d Gold ring 21 Gloves
0e Opal Ring 22 Copper bracer
0f White Shirt 23 Iron bracer
10 Black shirt 24 Silver bracer
11 Wooden shield 25 Zeus bracer
12 Iron shield 26 Power bracer
13 Silver shield 27 Opal bracer
14 Flame shield 28 ProRing

Playing around with the values, I ended up with weapons like:

Weapons in Game

and my armor setup looked like this, although I wasn’t trying to find the best setup:

Armor in Game

Other Misc Game Data

I ended up finding some general game data by searching for the gold amount of my party. Gold is stored in at least 3 bytes at 0x601c - 0x601e (highest byte is 601e). Setting the value above 0x0F423F (999,999) will cause you to have more gold when buying items, but sometimes the display value can be messed up and display some random letters like 999,9N2. I didn’t dig much more into this as having more gold wasn’t necessary.

Memory location 0x6016, when changed to non-zero, triggers the cut scene when the heroes first cross the bridge after defeating Garland.

By writing 1’s to the values in the generic game data block. I narrowed down the light orb booleans to the addresses: 0x6032-0x6035. A zero means the orb has not yet been obtained, and any other values shows the orb as shining.

The character’s world position: 0x0027 xpos, 0x0028 ypos. You can teleport the player around by changing these values. If you do so the map doesn’t update automatically, but you’ll see the new location tiles scroll in as you start to walk around or you can do a screen refresh by going into the party menu and then leaving.

If you teleport onto a location, like a mountain or water, you’ll be stuck, but then you just need to teleport yourself by changing the world position some more.

I wanted to find the airship right away, so I looked at a map online of FF1 and guesstimated where the world pos should be. I teleported myself in the desert where the airship is, placing myself nearby at 0xD1, 0xE5 for the x and y coordinates respectively.

Then looking back at the general game data block at 0x6000, I noticed a pair of coordinates DD, ED at 0x6005-0x6006 that looked like they could belong to the airship world position. So I tried setting the values around that to 1 to see if that would enable to the airship and setting the byte just before, which was 0, to 1, caused it to increment to 1f and the airship to appear at 0xDD, 0xED.

In a new game, you could simply move the airship to your world position and enable it and it will appear right next to you.

Wrapping up

This was a fun way to spend a few hours on a rainy Saturday revisiting one of my favorite games from my youth without investing as many hours playing. It does make me feel a bit less inclined to play old RPGs now, knowing that I’m grinding just to increase a few bytes of memory.

I hope you’ve found this interesting and try hacking around on an old game from your past and share the details. Happy hacking!